Formulated more generally, it may be said that the avoidance of discomfort or pain, which is associated with instinctual tension, and the achievement of pleasure, which is associated with gratification, is a basic tendency or regulatory principle of the psychic apparatus.
This has the advantage that the analyst may act as observer and listener without using his or her influence from transference, etc. The id is the seat of drives and instincts, whereas the ego represents the logical, reality-oriented part of the mind, and the superego is basically your conscience—the moral guidelines, rules, and prohibitions that guide your behavior.
The first is that people misinterpret Freud's use of the word "sexual. The affect which accompanies this traumatic state is anxiety. The ego has too many defenses to ever be properly discussed here, among them repression S.
The primary example of this is sex itself, where of course the libido is present, and varying degrees of aggression or lack thereof can lead someone to either be bashful and impotent or a sex murderer, and anything in-between. Even if an inordinate amount of time is spent writing about theory within the profession, clinical practice plays the central role in the professional lives of psychoanalysts Michels, While Id acts based on the "pleasure principle", Ego acts based upon "reality principle.
For example, it seems certain that any qualified observer who is in a position to apply the psychoanalytic method to the study of human mental life must agree that the sexual life of man begins long before puberty. You can move material from the preconscious into consciousness simply by focusing your attention on it.
Instead of instinctively acting like the id, the superego works to act in socially acceptable ways. Clinical observations and considerations had much to do with forcing the issue—facts and special theoretical formulations that had no firm position in the general theory as it stood had been accumulating.
One may add that for many, or perhaps most, individuals, one of the results of superego formation is a considerable degree of guilt over genital masturbation, since this is usually the physically gratifying activity which accompanies the sexually exciting wishes of the Oedipal period.
Proper mothering and, later, proper fathering as well are essential to proper development of the psychic apparatus and, more broadly, of the personality as a whole. In fact, it never again received the attention he had given it in the Project.
They are, so to say, the executants of the wishes or urges which are the mental representations of the drives. Dozens of studies have shown that mental images of our parents, and other significant figures, really do shape our expectations for later friendships and romantic relationships.
In reaction formation one mental tendency is emphasized in order to prevent the emergence of its opposite. This technique involves a therapist reading a list of words e. That his interest narrowed to the one adaptational function of defensive repression partly reflected the logical momentum of his theory which led to, and was continually fed by, particular emphases of clinical observation.
The offspring of no other mammal is so dependent on its parents for such a long period of time as is the human, and this fact is of profound importance in the mental life and development of man. Freud reported that his free associating patients occasionally experienced such an emotionally intense and vivid memory that they almost relived the experience.
The topographic model, psychosexual stage model, and structural model continue to influence contemporary psychology, but it is important to keep in mind that psychodynamic theory is never static, ever changing and evolving in response to new ideas and findings.
As a result, repressed ideas come to the surface - though what we remember may well have been altered during the dream process. Freud proposed to call this interim period a period of latency.
Structure of the psychic apparatus In its mature form or organization the psychic apparatus is divided into three groups of related functions.
Consequently, the analyst attempts to clarify, interpret, confront, work through and resolve the transference.
Some of the functions that are grouped together as the ego appear to be directly related to the form and functioning of the nervous systemas, for example, sensory perception and the control of voluntary muscular activity, while others, such as the ability to distinguish between subjective and objective reality originally called reality principleare more complex and more obviously related to experiential or learning processes in the course of development.
The Topographic Model In his book, The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud introduced his topographic model of the mind, which contended that the mind could be divided into three regions: The ego seeks pleasure and avoids unpleasure.
The misperceptions of the environment that play such a large role in many psychoses are mainly related to the defensive use of denial in those conditions.According to psychoanalytic theory, this slip of the tongue, known as a Freudian slip, reveals her unconscious anger toward her mother.
The Id, the Ego, and the Superego Freud proposed that personalities have three components: the id. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality, the id is the personality component made up of unconscious psychic energy that works to satisfy basic urges, needs, and desires.
The id operates based on the pleasure principle, which demands immediate gratification of needs. It is possible to examine personality using multiple parts of different theories, while certain characters may be best described by one theory.
Although Kurt Cobain, a complex character, cannot possibly fit into any one personality theory perfectly, parts of his personality can be explained using theories created by Alfred Adler and Carol.
Critics of psychoanalytic theory. The psychoanalytic approach has a variety of advantages and limitations that have spurred further research and expansion into the realm of personality development. Advantages. The theory emphasizes the importance of childhood experiences.
Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology.
First laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work.
Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy both have the goal of basic changes in the patient's personality structure and level of functioning, although psychoanalysis typically aims at more extensive and more profound change.Download