Scarlet Song, about the marriage between a European woman and an African man, was published posthumously. Bycontrast,the womanwho has been marginalizedfrom the assimilationprocessby the Frenchcolonialpatriarchyis withoutthe resourcesto free herself, but she becomes the rallyingforce motivatingher male compatriot into action, "aVappel dela race.
Ba therefore has the power to re-live her life in her book and this time round, she opts for the option of continuing with her failed marriage to Modou Fall.
Arame, Yacine, and Dieynaba: Femi Ojo-Ade'scriticismof the novel is pointedlyrepresentativeof this kind of thinking: They are both strong females, but they utilize different ways to cope with their personal tragedies.
Such passive stance results from societal conditioning through questionable cultural practices. Ramatou's choice prompts d'Almeida to point out that the independent voice Ba gives to her female characters is not to be heard unambiguously.
The widowed Senegalese woman who, after 25 years of marriage and 12 children, narrates the story of her psychological abandonment by her husband, who takes a second wife.
In effect, theyhelp to sustainthe patriarchyin powerand furtherreinforcetheir marginalizedstatus. Fortunately,the confusion with the symbolic MotherAfrica,the violatedvictimof colonial imperialism,also iden- tifies the Africanwomanas weakand helpless.
What has the author revealed in the work about his or her characteristic modes of the thought, perception, or emotion?
Just as the Mother Africa concept elevates women but only as a processby which men become self-realized,the women of SoLonga Letterexercise power on men's behalf. Today, roughly 90 percent of Senegalese society follows Muslim religion while the remaining 10 percent follows forms of Christianity or mixed religions.
AuntyNabou'sroyal authoritycan only be effectivelyand legitimatelyexercisedif her son marries"properly"; that is, from within the royalline. Suchis the fate of Nnu Ego, the misguided heroine Buchi Emecheta creates to make the point in her highly satiricalnovel, TheJoysof Motherhood.
Unfortunately,the state that sanc- tionsand promotesthissymbolismfailsto guaranteecitizenshiprights for women. Takento the next level, this paper featuresa two-partanalysisof Ba's novel, focusing on the author'suse of female charactersto question the constructionof Negritudeas a liberationconcept for all Africans irrespectiveof gender.
Comparing Ramatoulaye with Aissatou, Binetou with Nabou and Modou with Mawdo, this Senegalese writer uncovers the identities of her characters, their personal characteristics and beliefs, motivations and social standing.
Rama fumes at how Aissatou is expelled from school for getting pregnant, but boys never suffer such consequences. It is particularlytroubling that her options are after the fact, rein- forcing the impression, especially to other women in the society, that there is really no way out.
Online Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, In a dramaticcase of regression,Mowdocapitulatesto the feudalisticideals of his mother and breaksup his marriageto Aissatouwhen he marriesthe upper- castegirl his mothergroomsfor him.
It maybe arguedthat the indirectrule policyallowedthe Anglophonesto remain somewhatmore in touch with their cultures than their Francophone counterparts.
She is no longer a one-dimensionalcardboard character.
It was during this time she found a way to make peace with the past and to embrace the future. If in the realm of symbolismthe woman becomes MotherAfrica, what then is the man? Paradoxically,the required"naturalness" of the archetypalAfrican woman does not imply that she should be totally ignorant of the impuritiesof the world and the unsavoryside of life representedby Europeancultureand colonization.
Rama debates whether to leave Modou, but ultimately stays, to the horror of her children. Essai sur la condition et le role des griots dans la soci- eteMalinke.
She feels powerlessand disgracedwhen her son chooses his wife from a low-castegoldsmithfamily. Gens de la parole: Though Mawdo is of a higher class than Aissatou, being the son of a princess, the two marry in defiance of caste traditions.
Having heard that Aissatou will be coming back to Senegal to visit, Rama tells her friend about her children, some now adults themselves. Ba castigatesthe Negritudeidealof womanhoodby creatingits twin- image in the characterof Ramatoubut then situatesher in a multiple context where she is forced to reexamine herself and question her actions as she faces different circumstancesand has to interactwith otherwomen and men, especiallyNegritudemen.Education and Self Reliance in the 21st Century: A Pragmatic Analysis of Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter.
By Ambi Abigail Andrew Department of English, Faculty of Arts, P.M.B.Nasarawa State University, Keffi A Paper presented at the Academic Trust Fund (4th National Conference) Federal.
Essay on Mariama Bâ’s So Long a Letter - Mariama Bâ’s So Long a Letter When a person hears words like feminist or feminism, notions of what it means to be feminine, or consequently unfeminine, begin to dimly form in our mind’s eye.
LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in So Long a Letter, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work.
Preston, Oliver. "So Long a Letter Chapter 1." LitCharts. LitCharts LLC, 30 Nov Web. 13 Sep Preston, Oliver. "So Long a Letter Chapter 1." LitCharts.
LitCharts. The topic Language in Feminist Literature: a study of Mariama Ba’s So Long a Letter, will serve as a good research material to students and other researchers.
This work will throw more light on the language of feminism and its impact to society. So Long a Letter Summary & Study Guide Mariama Ba This Study Guide consists of approximately 24 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of So Long a Letter.
As Ramatoulaye, the first-person narrator of So Long A Letter reflects, Africa is diverse: even within a single country there are changes in attitudes as one moves from north to south and east to west (42).Download