No one knows how many temporarily lost the vote, but one estimate was that it was as high as 10, to 15, out of a total white population of roughly eight million.
But as the initial excitement of the Reconstruction era faded out, people came to the realization that old, entrenched institutions would not dismantle readily. Sumner preferred at first impartial requirements that would have imposed literacy restrictions on blacks and whites. Having achieved this concession from their white masters, African Americans would rejoice their newly won liberties and rights in the years following the war — also referred by historians as the period of Reconstruction.
That the emancipation of black Americans was a bottom-up process rather than vice-versa is emphasized by the author. Vann Woodward, in The New York Review of Bookswrote, "Eric Foner has put together this terrible story with greater cogency and power, I believe, than has been brought to the subject heretofore.
In a essay, Foner pondered whether Reconstruction might have turned out differently. However, there were enough Radical Republicans to be outraged at the weak changes in black rights and conditions.
While many slaves were illiterate, educated blacks including escaped slaves moved down from the North to aid them, and natural leaders also stepped forward.
That the emancipation of black Americans was a bottom-up process rather than vice-versa is emphasized by the author. Material devastation of the South in [ edit ] Further information: These Reconstruction Amendments established the rights that led to Supreme Court rulings in the midth century that struck down school segregation.
Writing on the Reconstruction Era[ edit ] Foner has long been considered a leading authority on the Reconstruction Era of American history. There is a tendency among contemporary scholars to give simplistic explanations for the overall failure of the project.
This is a theme that was sourced in the Whig party see What Hath God Wrought for an excellent history of antebellum attitudes toward the appropriate federal role and states rights, amidst wideranging coverage of technical, cultural, economic, and political US history from But crop failures and the crushing tax burden brought on by Southern Reconstruction corruption soured the white yeoman enthusiasm for stronger central government and the taxes needed for services.
Foner outlines some permanent gains, but laments that it could have been so different. They also disrupted political organizing and terrorized blacks to bar them from the polls. It turned the party from the champion of abolition, free labor rights, and government as catalyst of development to the enforcer for Gilded Age magnates and advocate of small government.
Immediately after the Civil War an atmosphere of euphoria prevailed, when the intellectuals and common people alike dreamt of a radically new American society. How much of this failure was caused by the war and by previous reliance on agriculture remains the subject of debate among economists and historians.
This shorter version is a though short but is a comprehensive account of the era of Reconstruction addressing all the issues surrounding the time period. But in the book in question, it works very well and infuses an element of authenticity to historical accounts.
After the census, the South would gain numerous additional representatives in Congress, based on the population of freedmen. However, there were enough Radical Republicans to be outraged at the weak changes in black rights and conditions.
They introduced various reconstruction programs including: White paramilitary organizationsespecially the Ku Klux Klan and also the White League and Red Shirts formed with the political aim of driving out the Republicans.
What is interesting here, though, is how strongly these Republicans supported a strong federal government and activist policies and expenditures.
Even in untouched areas, the lack of maintenance and repair, the absence of new equipment, the heavy over-use, and the deliberate relocation of equipment by the Confederates from remote areas to the war zone ensured the system would be ruined at war's end.
A Republican coalition of freedmen, southerners supportive of the Union derisively called scalawags by white Democratsand northerners who had migrated to the South derisively called carpetbaggers —some of whom were returning natives, but were mostly Union veterans — organized to create constitutional conventions.
The foundations of their institutions Renowned American historian Eric Foner has also written many books concerning Reconstruction era. I gained a deeper understanding of 1 what happened during Reconstruction and 2 how this crucial period shaped in the character of the Republican and Democratic parties that we still see today.
Some northern states that had referenda on the subject limited the ability of their own small populations of blacks to vote. Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever.
The main feature of the Southern economy changed from an elite minority of landed gentry slaveholders into a tenant farming agriculture system.Dec 26, · Eric Foner's "Short History" of Reconstruction has radically changed how the period is taught at the high school and university levels.
Before Foner, the majority of texts treated the Reconstruction as a period of corruption and revenge against the south/5(5). A Short History of Reconstruction: New York, NY: HarperCollins, Eric Foner, The Reconstruction time period ( to ) was a complex time for America. Many historians have focused on the issues surrounding this era.
From the “preeminent historian of Reconstruction” (New York Times Book Review), a newly updated abridged edition of the prize-winning classic work on the post-Civil War period which shaped modern America.
In this updated edition of the abridged Reconstruction, Eric Foner redefines how the post-Civil War period was viewed. Eric Foner (/ ˈ f oʊ n ər /; born February 7, ) is an American dfaduke.com writes extensively on American political history, the history of freedom, the early history of the Republican Party, African American biography, Reconstruction, and historiography, and has been a member of the faculty at the Columbia University Department of History since An abridged version of Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, the definitive study of the aftermath of the Civil War, winner of the Bancroft Prize, Avery O.
Craven Prize, Los Angeles Times Book Award, Francis Parkman Prize, and Lionel Trilling Prize/5(4).
This course explores the causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War, from the s to The primary goal of the course is to understand the multiple meanings of a transforming event in American history.Download